Avraham Avinu (1638 BCE) (Bava Batra 91a). [According to others, his yahrtzeit is 1 Tishrei or 1 Nisan (Moed Katan 28a)]
Rav Yosef Ha’Maarvi (or Yosef ibn Tabul) (1539). Born in North Africa (some say in Dara, Morocco), he traveled to Tzefat, where he learned with the Arizal, along with Rav Chaim Vital. Later, Rav Yosef was exiled to Tunisia. He settled in El Chamamah, where he served as Av Bet Din.
Rav Yair Chaim (ben Moshe Shimshon) Bachrach (1638-1702 or 1701), author of Chavot Yair. Born in Leipnik in the Moravian province of Austria. His grandmother Chavah was a granddaughter of the Maharal of Prague. One of his works, Mekor Chaim, a major commentary on the Shulchan Aruch was ready to be printed when the commentaries of Taz and Magen Avraham were printed. Sadly, Rav Yair Chaim withdrew his own commentary. Besides his halachic expertise he had complete mastery of all the sciences, music and had a deep interest in history. He also wrote poetry. He compiled a 46-volume encyclopedia on many topics. In 1689 the Worms community was decimated by the French and sent into exile. It was rebuilt ten years later, and the Chavot Yair was appointed Rav of the city where his father and grandfather had served before him. He served for only three years until his passing.
Rav Masoud Raphael Alfasi (1774). Born in Fez, Morocco. Leader of the Tunisian Jewish community. He Died in Tunisia.
Rav Avraham Moshe (ben Simcha Bunim) of Peshischa (1828).
Rav Yitzchak Eizik (ben Moshe) Langner, sixth Strettiner Rebbe (1906-1979). In 1921, his father moved the family from Galicia to Toronto. He married in 1929, but he and his wife never had children. In 1959, he succeeded his father as Rebbe.
Rav Mordechai Shlomoh (ben Yehuda Leib) Berman (1931-2004). Born in Russia, Reb Mordechai Shlomoh and his family moved to Tel Aviv when he was still young. He attended Yeshivat Chabad before his Bar Mitzvah and learned under Rav David Povarsky. When his teacher became Rosh Yeshivah of Ponevezh, he took his little talmid with him. When the Chazon Ish found out about the young illui, he had him move into his home and cared for him as a son. At Ponevezh, he became the talmid muvhak of the Rashei Yeshivah, Rav David Povarsky and Rav Shmuel Rozovsky. In time, the Chazon Ish married him off to his niece, the daughter of the Steipler Gaon. He became Rosh Mesivta of Ponevezh at the age of 20, and later became Rosh Yeshivah.
Other events on this day:
- Esther was forcibly taken to King Achashverosh's palace, 362 B.C.E.
- Portuguese Jewish statesman Manuel Fernando de Villareal executed by the Inquisition, 1652.
- Several restrictions on Jewish ownership of land went into effect in Russia, 1808.
- US General Mc’Narney grants 800,000 "minor Nazis" amnesty instead of prosecuting them, 1946.
- Adolf Eichmann found guilty of war crimes in Israel, 1962
Yaakov ibn Tzur of Fez, Morocco, author of Mishpat U’tzedaka B’Yaakov (1752)
Rav Mordechai Zev (ben Moshe) Orenstein (1735-1786). A grandson of the Chacham Tzvi, Rav Mordechai Zev was Rav of Kaminka at the age of 19. In 1772, he was appointed Rav of Satnov, and later he became Chief Rabbi of all of Poland. He spent the last 10 years of his life as Rav of Levov.
Rav Yaakov Tzvi (ben Yehoshua Asher) Rabinowitz of Porisov (1888). Author of Atarah L'Rosh Tzadik.
Other events on this day:
- King Herod captured Yerushalayim, 37 B.C.E.
- 100,000 Jews of Sicily were expelled, 1492.
- Rosh Pinah was founded by 130 Romanian Jews who arrived in Beirut on a ship named the "Titus", 1882.
- Vilna massacres end with 32,000 Jews killed, 1941.
Rav Avraham (ben Yehudah Tzvi) Brandwein of Stretyn (1864). His father was the foremost student of Rav Uri of Strelisk. Rav Avraham succeeded his father as the Rav of Stretyn, after his father's death in 1854. Rav Avraham left four daughters, and many of the Stretyner Chasidim followed his son-in-law, Rav Uri Rohatyner, and Rav Uri’s son, Yehudah Tzvi, after him.
Rav Yaakov Ha’Kohen Gadisha (1851-1909), Rav and Av Bet Din of Yerba, Tunisia, wrote Kochav Yaakov, Ma'il Yaakov and Halichot Yaakov.
Rav Yechezkel Ezra Yehoshuah, Rav of the Iraqi community in Yerushalayim (1941)
Rav Chaim Leib (ben Alter Raphael) Shmulevitz, Rosh Yeshivat Mir (1902-1979). Born in Stutchin, Poland, where his father, was Rosh Yeshivah. His mother, Ettel, was the daughter of Rav Yosef Yoizel Horowitz, the Alter of Novardok. In 1920, both of his parents suddenly died, and Reb Chaim was left to care for his younger brother and two younger sisters. When Rav Chaim was 22, Rav Shimon Shkop, Rosh Yeshivah in Grodno invited him to join his yeshivah. Reb Chaim continued his studies in Mir where the Rosh Yeshivah, Rav Eliezer Yehudah Finkel, chose him as a suitable match for his daughter. With the outbreak of World War II, he remained with the Mirrer Yeshivah in its exile in Shanghai for five years. After the war, he lived for a short while in America. With the establishment of the Mirrer Yeshiva in Yerushalayim, he immigrated to Eretz Yisrael and served as its Rosh Yeshivah. Rav Chaim authored Sichot Musar.
Rav Yaakov Shaul Katzin, head of New York Aleppo community (1900-1994). The Kassin family traces its lineage to Spain, from where they moved and settled in Aleppo following the Expulsion. Born in Yerushalayim, Rav Yaakov learned at Yeshiva Ohel Mo’ed and at Yeshivat Porat Yosef. Reb Yaakov was an orphan at 16 and married at 18. He was appointed Rosh Yeshivah in the then-newly-erected Yeshivat Porat Yosef building. During the course of his life he wrote several books on the science of Kabbalah. In 1925, he published Ohr Ha’Levanah, a commentary with chidushim from the teachings of the Rashash. He also wrote Yesod Ha’Emunah, which included arguments that dispelled doubts about the authenticity of Kabbalah, as well as responsa. In 1931, he published Pri Eitz Ha’gan, which included biographies of prominent tzadikim and discussions of their ethical teachings. From 1928 to the end of 1932, he served as a Dayan in the Supreme Bet Din of the Sefardic Community of Yerushalayim. In 1933, he accepted an offer from Magen David Congregation of Brooklyn, New York to serve as Chief Rabbi and Chief Dayan.
Rav Moshe Zev of Bialystock, author of Marot Ha’tzovot and Agudat Aizov (1729). He was the founder of Gemilat Chasadim Bet Midrash, Bialystock’s most prominent Torah center, where Rav Meir Simchah of Dvinsk learned after his marriage.
Rav Yehoshuah Eizel Charif of Slonim (1801-1872). Born in Glovanka, near Minsk. After many years of learning under the enthusiastic support of his father-in-law, Rav Yitzchak Fein, he became Rav Kalavaria, then Kutno, and finally Slonim (near Grodno). He was the author of many sefarim, including Emek Yehoshuah, Nachlat Yehoshuah, Noam Yerushalmi, Sefat Ha’nachal and Atzat Yehoshuah.
Rav Gershon Henoch (ben Yaakov) Leiner of Radzin (1839-1891), the Baal Ha’techeilet. His grandfather was the Rav Mordechai Yosef Leiner of Ishbitz, founder of Ishbitz chassidut after leading a group of disciples from the Court of Reb Menachem Mendel of Kotzk. He replaced his father as Rebbe of Ishbitz after the former’s petirah in 1878. Rav Gershon Henoch travelled from Radzin to Italy in search of the Chilazon, the marine source from which the dye was obtained. The Chilazon carried the dye in a special sac located in its pharynx. In the famed aquarium at Naples he saw the Chilazon and studied the way in which the dye was removed and prepared. He discovered that it was used by artists in their paintings because it would never fade. Although the Maharsham wore a Talit (in private) using Rav Gershon Henoch’s techeilet, in the end, only Radziner Chassidim and some Berslovers wear this techeilet. In recent years, several other species of fish have been suggested as the genuine techeilet. Among his sefarim are Sod Yesharim on the Torah and Yamim Tovim, Orchot Chaim and the tzavaah of the Tanna Rabi Eliezer ben Horkinus, Tiferet Hachanochi on the Zohar, and Sidrei Taharot (a collection of the relevant material from the whole Talmud Bavli, Talmud Yerushalmi, and all other Braytot, presented in chronological order).
Rav Chaim Shaul (ben Eliyahu) Dveik (Dewick, Dueck) HaKohen, Rosh Yeshiva Hamekubalim of Yerushalayim and author of Eifo (Aifah) Shleimah (1933)
Rav Shalom (ben Shmuel) Rokeach, Rav of Skohl (1961)
Rebetzin Recha Schwab (1908-2003). Married in 1931, she moved with Rav Schwab to the United States in 1936 and settled in Washington Heights in 1958. She left this world with 180 descendants, all Torah-observant.
Rav Mordechai Pinchas Chaim (ben Binyamin Avraham Yaakov) Teitz, Rav of Elizabeth, NJ. (1908-1995) Born in Latvia and a student of the famed Rogachaver Ilui, he arrived in the USA in 1933. He created the kehillah of Elizabeth and founded schools and shuls, and pioneered in teaching Talmud on the radio, records and audiotapes. From the 1960s to the 1980s he made twenty-two trips to the USSR to sustain the three million Jews imprisoned there. He was a major force in the work of Ezrat Torah and saved its construction in Israel from bankruptcy. Stories about him can be found in the book “Learn Torah, Love Torah, Live Torah,” by by Rivkah Teitz Blau.
Other events on this day:
- Jews were excluded by the Nazis from all employment benefits, 1939
- Beginning of the so-called “Prague Spring,” as reformist Slovak Alexander Dubček came to power and instituted far-reaching reforms and renewed ties with the West, 1968. Rights given to citizens in the area of media, speech, and travel were conjoined with a partial decentralization of the economy and democratization. The period lasted 7 months after which the Soviet Union and members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms.
Rav Shlomo Molcho (1500-1532 or 1534). Born in Lisbon, Portugal, a descendant of Portuguese Marranos. He published 22 essays on the topic of redemption according to the secrets of Kabbalah in his work, Sefer Hamefoar. He met with the Pope and asked him to stop the campaign against the Marranos. He also met Rabbi Yossef Karo in Tzfat and the Kabbalist Rabbi Yosef Taitzik of Salonica who taught R' Molcho Kabbalah. His speeches inspired many Marranos to publicly return to their faith. Arrested by the officers of the Inquisition, he recited Shema with great joy, as he was burned at the stake by Roman Emperor Charles V in Mantua, Italy.
Rav Aharon (ben Tzvi Hirsch) of Titiov, grandson of the Baal Shem Tov (1828)
Rav Avraham Yaakov (ben Yisrael) Friedman of Sadiger (1884-1961), named for his grandfather, the first Sadigerer Rebbe. When Reb Avraham Yaakov turned 18, he married Bluma Raizel, the daughter of the Kapischnitzer Rebbe, Reb Yitzchak Meir Heschel. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, he fled to Vienna, Austria, and lived there for 24 years. When the Nazis entered Vienna in 1938, the Rebbe was captured and forced to sweep the streets clean, to the amusement of the on looking Germans. After WW2, he lived in Tel Aviv, where he continued the Sadigerer line. He authored Abir Yaakov.
Rav Yerachmiel Tzvi Rabinowitz, the Biala-P’shischa Rebbe (2003). Born in 1923, the first-born son of the previous Biala Rebbe, the Chelkat Yehoshuah. He became Rebbe after his father was niftar in 1982 and opened his Bet Midrash in the Har Nof section of Yerushalayim.
Rav Shimon Cohen of Ashdod, Rosh Yeshivat Torah Ohr (2013). Rav Cohen was a pioneer of Jewish education in the port city.
Other events on this day:
- Auto-da-fe at Toledo, 1486. More than 900 people were humiliated in a parade from the Church of San Pedro Martir to the cathedral, forced to recant, fined 1/5 of their property and permanently forbidden to wear decent clothes or hold office.
- Decree of Empress Catherine restricted the right of residence of Russian Jews, 1791.
Rav Yaakov (ben Yosef) Reischer (1661-1733 or 1732), author of Minchat Yaakov (commentary on Torat Chatat of the Rema), Chok Yaakov (on the Shulchan Aruch), Iyun Yaakov (chidushim on Agadata), and Shevut Yaakov (Sheilot u’Teshuvot). Born in Prague. Served as Rav in Reische, Worms, and Metz.
Rav Mattityahu (ben Shmuel) Straushun of Vilna, son of the Rashash (1885). Author of Hagahot L'Cheilek Mi’Masechtot Shas.
Rav Yechezkel Shraga (ben Chaim) Halberstam, the Shinover Rav (1815-1899 or 1898). He was born in Rudnick, Galicia, eldest son of the Sanzer Rav. He was an ardent follower of Rav Asher of Ropshitz, and a chassid of Rav Tzvi Hirsh of Rymanov, Rav Shalom of Belz, and Rav Meir of Premishlan. Tragically, he was married and widowed 5 times. His first wife was the grand-daughter of the Yismach Moshe, Rav Moshe Teitelbaum of Mujehly, Hungary. He is known as the Divrei Yechezkel.
Rav Chaim Shlomo (ben Yosef) Rottenberg of Koson (1919)
Rav Alter Yisrael Shimon (ben Yaakov) Perlow of Novominsk (1873 or 1874-1933), author of the posthumously published Tiferet Ish on the Haggadah of Pesach and later the Tiferet Ish on the Moadim. Scion of the dynasties of Ustila, Koidanov, Lehovitch, Karlin, Apt, Czernobyl and Berdichev, he succeeded his father at Novominsker Rebbe in 1902. He settled in Warsaw in 1917.
Rav Chaim Meidanik (1954). Rav in Chicago and author of Mazkeret Chaim and Hegyonei Chaim.
Rav Chaim Aryeh “Leib” (ben Yitzchak Menachem) Lerner (1893-1977). Born and raised in Leordina in northern Romania, he was a talmid of Rav Chaim Tzvi Teitelbaum, the Rav of Sighet. He moved to the USA in 1929 where he became Rav of Chevrat Bnei Yosef Degel Machaneh Ephraim in NYC. He authored the sefer, Imrei Chaim.
Rebetzin Beila Morgenstern (1908-2006). First-born daughter of the Admor of Ozerov-Chenchin, Rav Moshe Yechiel Epstein, author of Aish Daat and Be’er Moshe. She married Rav Tzvi Hershel Morgenstern, a descendent of the Kotzker Rebbe. Her husband served as a principal of the Bronx Bet Yaakov. She always recited the entire sefer Tehillim on the yahrtzeit of every one of her noble forefathers and asked Hasehm that their merit should protect all of Am Yisrael. Among her grandchildren are Rav David Altusky and Rav Yechiel Altusky.
Other events on this day:
- First edition of the Sefer Mitzvot Ha’Gadol published in Soncino, Italy, 1488.
- Founding of Slabodka Yeshivah in Bnei Brak by Rav Eizik Sher, son-in-law of Rav Natan Nota Finkel, the Alter from Slabodka
- United States Brigadier General Anthony C. Mc’Auliffe rejects a German demand for surrender at the Battle of the Bulge, 1944.
- The U.S. embassy in Kuwait was bombed, killing six and wounding scores of others, 1983. The bombers were tied to al-Dawa, a terror organization backed by Iran
Birthdate and yahrtzeit of Shimon ben Yaakov Avinu (1567 BCE). According to another opinion, it was the 28th of Tevet.
Rav Shmuel Segal of Brodi (1675)
Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib ben Yechiel Michel, the Mochiach of Polna’ah (1770). He was the author of Kol Aryeh.
Rav Yisrael Avraham ben Meshulam Zusha of Tcharni-Ostroha (1774-1814). Born to the Rebbe Reb Zusha in his 50s. He succeeded his father-in-law as Rav of Tcharni-Ostroha in 1790, after his father-in-law moved to Eretz Yisrael. He was appointed Rebbe following the passing of his father in 1800. His son-in-law was Rav Dovid of Tolna, the son of Rav Mordechai of Chernobyl.
Rav Yisrael Dov Ber ben Yosef of Vilednik, the She’eirit Yisrael (1789-1849 [or 1850]). Also known as the Magid of Vilednik, he was a student of Rav Mordechai Twersky (1770-1837), the Chernobler Rebbe. During his lifetime, thousands journeyed to the She’erit Yisrael for blessing, inspiration, and consultation. Before he passed away, he told his students that whoever would reach out and touch his door seeking help would be aided. Today, even thousands of non-Jews come to pray at his gravesite in their time of need. The She’eirit Yisrael’s reputation continues to endure amongst generations of gentiles in the area, and many Jews from around the world travel to his kever on his yahrtzeit.
Rav Matzliach ben Refael Mazuz, the Ish Matzliach (1912-1971). Born on the island city of Djerba, he was accepted into the yeshivah of Rav Rachamim Chai Chavitah Ha’Kohen at the age of eleven. After his marriage in 1930, Rav Matzliach moved to Tunis, where he served as a Mashgiach Ruchani in the Chevrat Ha’Talmud yeshiva for 13 years. He was later appointed to the position of Dayan in the Bet Din of Tunis. 600 couples came to him for divorces between the years 1955-1958, and he managed to make shalom bayit between 75% of them. He founded the Kisei Rachamim yeshivah in Tunis, named after his mentor, Rav Rachamim Chai Chavitah. Years later, his sons reestablished this yeshivah in Bnei Brak. In 1971, while Rav Matzliach was returning from a pre-dawn minyan, clad in tallit and tefillin, a number of Arabs attacked and killed him. Among Rav Matzliach's writings are: Shu"t Ish Matzliach, on the four parts of Shulchan Aruch, three of which have appeared until now; Kuntress Ha’Maarachot, which discusses the rules of issuing halachic decisions; Matzliach Yeshuah, a collection of chiddushim on the Shas; and Magen u'Tzinah, answers to questions on the Maharshah. The rest of his writings are still in manuscript form. Rav Matzliach is survived by his sons: Rav Mayer, Rosh Yeshivah of Kisei Rachamim in Bnei Brak and the leader of the Tunisian community in Eretz Yisrael; Rav Yosef Tzemach, the director and Mashgiach Ruchani of the yeshivah; and Rav Rachamim, also a Mashgiach Ruchani. One of Rav Matzliach's daughters is married to Rav Yitzchak Barda, author of Yitzchak Yeranen, and another to Rav Chanan Kablan, a Dayan.
Rav Eliyahu Eliezer Mishkovsky, Rosh Yeshivah of Keneset Chizkiyahu in Kefar Chasidim, Israel (1981). The yeshivah Knesset Chizkiyahu was founded in 1949 at the behest of the Chazon Ish and it was moved to Kfar Chassidim, under the guidance of the mashgiach, Rav Eliyahu Lopian and the Rosh Yeshivah, Rav Mishkovsky.
Rav Hillel ben Menachem Mendel Zaks, Rosh Yeshivat Knesset Ha’gedolah – Chevron in Modiin Illit, and a grandson of the Chofetz Chaim, (1930-2015). Born in Radin, he moved with his family to Eishishok, and later to Vilna in 1938, when the Red Army invaded Poland. The family crossed the Soviet Union to reach Japan and then traveled to America. He learned under Ha’Rav Moshe Feinstein, zt”l, in Metivta Tiferet Yerushalayim, then in Torah Vodaat, under Ha’Rav Reuven Grozovsky, and in Lakewood, which had been recently established by Ha’Rav Aharon Kotler. In 1996 he established his own yeshivah, Knesset Ha’gedolah, in Modiin Illit, then known as Kiryat Sefer; the yeshivah was also known as “Reb Hillel’s Yeshivah.”
Other events on this day:
- A Russo-U.S. trade treaty, originally ratified in 1832, was abrogated by President Taft in 1912 because of Russian discrimination against Jews who were American citizens.
- The Bahalul-Minkovsky Commission of Inquiry was given its mandate by the Israeli government to investigate the disappearance of at least 1,700 Yemenite children brought to Israel between 1948 and 1954. Its findings exonerated the government of all wrongdoing, 1967.
Rav Hillel Hertz, author of Beis Hillel (1689)
Rav Avraham of Tiktim, author of Pesach Ha’bayit (1820). Titkin was founded in the year 1437. In 1522, ten Jews from Grodno, Lithuania, petitioned for permission to be the first Jews to settle there. Even though Tiktin was on the Polish side of the boundary, the Jews of Tiktin considered themselves "Litvaks," speaking a pure Lithuanian Yiddish.
Rav Yozpe Stern of Zolkov, author of Yad Yosef (1827)
Rav Shlomo of Sterelisk (1827)
Rav Reuven Chaim Klein (1826-1873). Born in Cracow, he studied in the yeshivah of the Chatam Sofer in Pressburg and in the yeshivah of the Imrei Aish. He served as Rav in the area of Davidoff. He was the author of the Shenot Chaim (a sefer on Rabeinu Yerucham ben Meshulam), a talmid of the Rosh, who went into exile from Provence to Spain, in the 14th century. The Chida (18th Century) in his Shem Ha’gedolim states that there exists a tradition that anybody who publishes a commentary on Rabeinu Yerucham is destined for an early grave. Interestingly, Rav Reuven Chaim Klein was niftar at the age of 47 years.
Rav Shmuel ben Yisrael Heller, Ashkenazi Rav of Tsefat for 40 years (1884). On the 24th of Tevet in 1837, he was discovered buried up to his neck in stones. He had been standing under the lintel of the Bet Midrash Ari at the moment of the earthquake. His wounds were so severe that he was bedridden for six months and lost the use of one arm for the rest of his life. Rav Shmuel was a student of Rav Avraham Dov Auerbach of Avritch [1765-1840], who spent ten years as Rav in Tzefat.
Rav Avraham ben Yehudah Leib Eiger of Lublin, author of Shevet MiYehudah (1847-1914)
Rav Shalom ben Mordechai Yosef Moshe Moskowitz of Shatz, a Romanian town in the Bukovina district (1877-1958). A direct descendent (fifth generation) of Rav Yechiel Michel of Zlotchov and a great-grandson of Reb Meir of Premishlan, he was named after his mother's great-grandfather, the Sar Shalom of Belz. He traveled to the Maharsham (Rav Shalom Schwadron) of Berzhan to study practical halachah and received semichah. After leading a group of chassidim in Cologne, Germany, Rav Shalom arrived in London, in 1927, where he served for thirty years. Among the sefarim, he wrote is a commentary on Perek Shirah. He promised to help anyone who comes to his kever Friday morning and lights 3 candles (a tradition mentioned in Sefer Tikunim).
Rav Shlomo Miller (1924-2002). Born in the German city of Duisberg, he moved with his family to Antwerp During World War II. The family later moved to Eretz Yisrael. After marrying in 1948, he moved to Petach Tikvah where he learned at Kollel Torat Eretz Yisrael with Rav Chaim Shaul Karelitz. He published several important works on the halachot of milah on the Rambam, including Tzemach David and Melechet Shlomoh. He also published learned works about the lives of Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yochanon.
Other events on this day:
- Death of Bernard Gui, inquisitor and bishop in the area of Toulouse, France, 1331. He was the author of “Conduct of the Inquisition into Heretical Wickedness.” It advises how to spot a Jew or a “backsliding convert” and how to intensify the suffering of the interrogated by flame, rack, whip and needle. One tactic suggested was martyring children in front of their parents.
- Inquisition established in Peru, 1570.
- Prague Purim (or "Firhengpurim", "Purim of the Curtains"), when the shammash of the kehilla was arrested in connection with the purchase of rare stolen textiles, condemned to death and finally released, 1622.
- Mobs attempted to set fire to the Roman Jewish ghetto and ransack it, 1798
- Anti-Jewish riots in Ancona, Italy, 1798.
- 43 Jewish refugees trying to escape Morocco on the illegal Egoz boat drowned, 1961. Their bodies were finally brought to burial in Israel in 1993.
Rav Yaakov Ha’kohen Paperash, author of Shov Yaakov (1740).
Rav Yitzchak Zerachyah, father of the Chida (1765).
Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib ben Yechiel Michel Ha’Levi Epstein of Ozorov (1837). Orphaned of his father and mother at a young age, Reb Leibush and his two younger brothers were supported by a simple Jew of Ostrovsta. He was a chasid of the Yid Ha’kadosh and the Chozeh of Lublin. He became Rav of Ozorov in 1812. His most famous descendent was Rav Moshe Yechiel Michel Ha’Levi Epstein, the Aish Daat of Ozorov.
Rav Hillel of Radoshitz (1901). He was succeeded by his son Rav Eliezer Dovid as Rav and Rebbe of Radoshitz.
Rav Gedalyah Hertz (1914-1977). Born in Ujazd, near Tomashov, Poland, he left for Lubavitch Yeshivah Tomchei Temimim in Warsaw after his Bar Mitzvah. After some years, he went to Grodno to the yeshivah of Rav Shimon Shkopf. After marrying in 1935, he moved to Eretz Yisrael and entered Yeshivat Sfat Emet in Yerushalayim. The following year, the Imrei Emet opened a branch in Tel Aviv, which was later named Yeshivat Chidushei Harim; Rav Gedalyah was chosen as Rosh Yeshivah while still in his early 20s. After the founding of the state of Israel, he was chosen to be the representative of the Vaad of Yeshivot to government officials and was instrumental in getting Ben Gurian to accept deference for all yeshivah students. In 1955, Rav Gedalyah became the Rav of the newly established a kehilah in Sydney, Australia. In 1963, he returned to Eretz Yisrael.
Rav Mordechai Gifter (1915-2001). Born in Portsmouth, Virginia, he moved to Baltimore with his family, when his father noted the difficulty in teaching his son in a city not noted for its strong Torah resources. As a youth, he studied in the Rav Yitzchak Elchanan Yeshivahof New York City under Rav Moshe Ha’Levi Soloveitchik. Rav Gifter studied together with Rav Natan Wachtfogel and Rav Avigdor Miller of Flatbush. On the advice of his uncle, Rav Gifter went to study in the Telz yeshivah of Lithuania in the winter of 1932. He became very close to the Rosh Yeshivah, Rav Avraham Yitzchak Bloch. In the summer of 1939, Rav Gifter became engaged to the daughter of Rav Zalman Bloch. The wedding date was set for a year later. The couple married in the United States. With the expansion of the Ner Yisrael yeshivah in Baltimore by Rav Yaakov Yitzchak Ruderman, Rav Gifter was asked to deliver chaburot to the students. In 1943, he became rav of the chareidi community in Connecticut. He moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1976, founding the Telz yeshivah in Kiryat Telz-Stone near Yerushalayim. However, three years later, the Rosh Yeshivah of Telz in Cleveland, Rav Baruch Sorotzkin, was niftar, and Rav Gifter returned to Cleveland to succeed him. And there he remained until his own petirah.
Rav Mordechai Shmuel ben Moshe Ashkenazi, Rav of Kfar Chabad (1943-2015). A tremendous talmid chacham, proficient in all areas of Torah, he was a prolific writer on Torah and chasidic subjects, and a gifted orator. He was born in Tel Aviv, where his father served as the Rav of the Chabad community. While he was doing shimush under Rav Schneur Zalman Gorelick, the Rebbe asked him to compile the sefer Marei Mekomot L’Shulchan Aruch Ha’Admor Hazaken. Each week he wrote a column in the local Chabad weekly, which he compiled into a sefer titled, Shaarei Tefilah U’minhagim.
Other events on this day:
- A decree was issued in Portugal giving the Jews of the country one year to either convert or leave, 1496. Tragically, many of the Jews had been exiled from Spain just four years earlier.
- Tripoli Purim, in which Tunis ruler Ibrahim A-Sharif was defeated after attacking Tripoli, 1705. After besieging the city, he threatened to kill all the inhabitants. With just one last fortress to conquer, a sudden epidemic spread among his soldiers and he was forced to withdraw with the remains of his army.
- A fire which started in the home of Naftali Katz, the Rav of Frankfurt-on-Main nearly destroyed the whole Jewish ghetto, 1711.
- Francis Salvador, 29, was the first Jew to die in the American Revolution, 1776.
- In Russia, Alexander I expelled all the Jews from Mohilev and Vitebsk, 1825.
- The Iron Guard revolt in Romania led to the first massacre of Jews there in World War II, 1941
- Students from the Mir Yeshiva (and others), having escaped the Nazis and traveled to Kobe, Japan, and later to Shanghai, China, arrived on US shores via the SS General M.C. Meigs, a US Navy ship, 1949.
- Death of Ali Hassan Salameh (Abu Hassan), chief of operations for Black September the organization responsible for the 1972 Munich massacre and other attacks. He was assassinated by Mossad in Beirut (1979).
Rav Naftali ben Yitzchak Katz, author of Semichat Chachamim (1660-1719), descendent of the Maharal. Born in Ostracha, Ukraine and died in Istanbul. His father, a Rav in Stefan and a darshan in Prague, died in 1670. Reb Naftali married Esther Sheindl, daughter of Shmuel Shmelke Zak of Ostraha, and headed the Yeshivah that his father-in-law built for him. After Rabbi Shmuel died he succeeded him as Rabbi and Av Bet Din. In 1704 he became Rav of Frankfurt until 1711, when a fire broke out in his home and spread from there burning down several hundred homes. Rav Naftali was jailed and accused of setting the fire. When he was released, he left for Prague and Breslau and stayed with Tzvi Ashkenazi (the Chacham Tzvi). They both excommunicated Nechemyah Chayun who wrote a book in favor of Shabtai Tzvi. He had 14 children, 7 sons and 7 daughters. Rav Yaakov Emden, the son of the Chacham Tzvi, married Rav Naftali's granddaughter Rachel.
Rav Yosef of Yampula, son of the Zlotchiver Magid (1812).
Rav Shneur Zalman ben Baruch of Liadi (1745-1813), the Baal Ha’tanya and founder of Chabad-Lubavitch. He became a talmid of the Magid of Mezritch at the age of 19, studying with him for 12 years, and becoming the leader of Chasidut in Lithuania following the Magid’s petirah in 1771. Following his incarceration in St. Petersburg, he moved to Liadi. In addition to Tanya, he also authored the Shulchan Aruch Ha’Rav. His kever is in Haditch, Ukraine.
Rav Nisim Zerachyah Azoulay, author of Shulchan Ha’Tahor (1837).
Rav Meir Eisenstadt, also known as Meir Ash or Maharam Ash (1780-1852). His responsa were published by his son under the title, Imrei Esh. He was one of the early talmidim of the Chatam Sofer, and his greatest talmid in Mattersdorf. He was born in Shusberg and grew up in Eisenshtadt, from whence he derived his surname. He died at Ungvár.
Rav Avraham Dov Berish Flamm (1804-1873). Rav Flamm is considered to be the leading disciple of the Dubno Magid, Rav Yaakov Kranz, although, in fact, the two never met. Rav Flamm was, however, the leading student of the Magid's writings, and it was he, together with the Magid's son, Rav Yitzchak Kranz, who edited these and prepared them for publication. Rav Flamm was himself a popular magid, and he held that post in several Polish and Lithuanian cities. Besides publishing the Dubno Magid's Ohel Yaakov and Sefer Ha’midot, Rav Flamm wrote several works of his own. His Yeriot Ha'ohel and Sefat Ha'yeriah were printed together with Ohel Yaakov, while his Shemen Ha'mor is a free-standing work.
Rav Moshe Yosef Teitelbaum (1842-1897). The son of Rav Yekutiel Yehudah Teitelbaum, he was appointed Rav and Av Bet Din of Stropkov when Rav Yechezkel Shraga Halberstam returned to Sienawa in 1880. In 1891, he left the town for a post in Ujhely, Hungary.
Rav Shmuel Borenstein, the Shem Mi’Shmuel from Sochatshov (1855-1926). He was born in Kotzk to Rav Avraham Borenstein, the Sochatchover Rebbe and mechaber of Avnei Nezer. His grandfathers were Rav Nachum Ze’ev of Biala, the Agudat Eizov and Rav Menachem Mendel, the Lotzker Rebbe. Rav Shmuel considered Rav Chanoch Henoch of Alexander to be his Rebbe. After the petirah of the Alexander Rebbe in 1870, the Avnei Nezer was made Rebbe, and his son followed him as his Rebbe. He was married in 1873, but his wife died in 1901. He remarried in 1903. Rav Shmuel served as magid shiur in his father’s yeshivah in Sochatchov and helped him write Eglei Tal on the 30 malachot of Shabat, as well as Avnei Nezer. After his father was niftar in 1910, the Chasidim crowned Rav Shmuel their Rebbe. His sefer contains the thoughts of his famous father.
Rav Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer, the Divrei Sofer (1948). Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer was the oldest son of the Chatam Sofer and Sorel, daughter of Rabbi Akiva Eger, and was known as the Ktav Sofer (1815-1871).
Rav Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler (1892-1953). His father, Rav Reuven Dov Dessler, was a talmid muvhak of Rav Simchah Zissel of Kelm, and his mother was a granddaughter of Rav Yisrael Salanter and a niece of Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinski. After learning at Kelm, he married a grand-daughter of Rav Simchah Zissel. During the Bolshevik revolution, he moved to London in 1927. In 1941, he founded the Gateshead Yeshivah and kollel. In 1948, he was asked by Rav Yosef Kahaneman to join the Ponevezh Yeshivah in Bnai Brak.
Rav Moshe Mordechai ben Shimon Natan Biederman, the Lelover Rebbe (1904-1987). Born in Yerushalayim, when he was just 10 years old, his mother passed away and his father moved to Krakow, Poland, leaving him to the care of his grandfather, Rav David. Five years later, after the petirah of his grandfather, he traveled to Europe and established his place of learning at the Radomsker shtiebel in Krakow. He became very close to the Stoliner Rebbe, the Yenukah. When his father was niftar 1930, the Chasidim looked to Moshe Mordechai to become their new Rebbe. He stayed in Poland until right before the onset of the War, settling in Tel Aviv in 1944.
Rav Moshe Akiva Tikochinsky (1988). Mashgiach of Slabodka Yeshivah in Bnai Brak.
Rav Gedalia ben Hirsch Felder (1912-19691). Born in Iczuki-dolne in Galicia, he moved to Canada in 1937. He continued his studies in Montreal and Toronto at Yeshivat Torat Chaim. Between 1940 and 1949 Rav Felder served as rabbi for several small Jewish communities in southern Ontario. In 1949, he moved to Toronto, where he remained for the rest of his life. Upon his arrival, Rav Felder assumed the pulpit of Shomrei Shabat. He taught at Torat Chaim and was a staunch supporter of the Etz Chaim Talmud Torah. He also served for years as the chairman of the Vaad Ha-Kashrut of the Central Region (i.e., Ontario) of the Canadian Jewish Congress, and was a supporter of the Mizrachi organization. Rav Felder achieved an international reputation on the basis of his halachic works: the Yesodei Yeshurun (laws regarding the liturgy, the Sabbath, and Passover); the two-volume Nachalat Tzvi (adoption, proselytes, and divorce). In 1977, Rav Felder published Sefer Tanya Rabati, a work attributed to Yechiel ben Yekutiel Ha’Rofe Anav of 13th century Italy. In recognition of Rav Felder's erudition, he was appointed one of the five members of the Bet Din of the Rabinical Council of America.
Other events on this day:
- Religious disputation at Tortosa arranged by Pope Benedict XIII. between Geronimo de Santa F. and Rav Yosef Albo, 1413.
- The first Jewish printing press in the Netherlands was set up by Menashe ben Yisrael, 1627.
- A fire which began in the home of Ran Naftali Katz – the Semichot Chachamim – nearly destroyed the entire Jewish ghetto, 1711.
- Earthquake kills 2000 Jews in Tzefat and 700 in Tiveria, 1837
- Israel and Egypt sign an agreement for the disengagement of forces in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur war, 1974. Israel agrees to withdraw from the Suez Canal.
Rav Moshe Tzvi Gitterman of Savran (1775-1838). Known as a genius as a boy, he was fluent in all of Seder Nezikin at the age of twelve. He learned chasidut from Rav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev and Rav Baruch of Mezhibuzh. After his father’s petirah in 1802, he succeeded him as magid of Savran. After the petirah of the Ohev Yisrael, he became the foremost Rebbe in all of the Ukraine. Eventually, he became the Rav of the two kehillot of Uman and Keshinov, When Rav Baruch of Mezhibuzh was niftar in 1811, Rav Moshe Tzvi took on the mantle of Admorut, officially leading Chasidim. His Divrei torah are recorded in Likutei Shoshanim.
Rav Yosef Rosen, Rav of Telshe and Slonim (1885).
Rav Eliyahu Meir Feivelsohn of Yekatrinoslav (1928)
Rav Shlomoh Mazuz of Djerba, author of Sho’el U’meishiv Kerem Shlomo and Cheshek Shlomoh (1908-1982).
Other events on this day:
- Anti-Jewish riots in different parts of Austria, 1312.
- First edition of Chovot Ha’levavot published in Italy, 1559.
- Raphael Levy, a respected member of the Jewish community, was arrested for ritual murder libel, tortured and burned alive in an effort to have the local government expel the Jews in Metz, 1670. The effort was unsuccessful.
- A fast day declared in Frankfurt after a pogrom burnt down the Jewish quarter, 1718.
- The first Jewish hospital in the U.S. was founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants, 1852. Originally known as Jews’ Hospital of New York, it is now called Mount Sinai Hospital.
Rabbeinu Avraham bar Dovid Mi’Posquires (Ra’avad), author of Hasagot on the Rambam and the Rif
Rav Avraham Chaim of Zlotchov, author of Orach Le’Chaim and P’ri Chaim (1816). He was mechaber of a sefer called, Pri Chaim.
Rav Hillel Finkler of Radoshitz (1901)
Rav Alexander Shmuel of Lvov, author of Rosh Ha’mizbeach (1905)
Rav Mattityahu ben Aharon Tzvi Weitzner (1952-2010). Av Bet Din of Pshemisheler, he succeeded his father as Rav of the kehilah in 2007, after the latter was niftar at the age of 102.
Rav Yissachar Meir, Rosh Yeshivat Ha’negev in Netivot (1928-2011). He was born in Lemberg, Germany. As a young man he was appointed Rosh Yeshivah in Morocco and developed the yeshivah into a makom Torah with over 300 talmidim. Ultimately, he settled in Netivot where he transformed the town into one that embodied the essence of Torah. Although he was never blessed with children, he said many times in his shiurim that he “has thousands of children”; meaning his beloved Talmidim.
Rav Moshe Ernster (1924-2013). Born in Klausenburg, Romania, he became the son-in-law of the Imrei Chaim of Vizhnitz and founded the Maor Chaim Mosdot in Yerushalayim and Tzefat.
Rav Shlomo ben Moshe Yitzchak Brevda (1931-2013), famous Magid Shiur who delivered thousands of drashot in Jewish communities across the globe. Born in Crown Heights, NY, he first learned at Yeshivat Rabeinu Yitzchak Elchanan. He learned with Rav Aharon Kotler in Lakewood before leaving for Eretz Yisrael to learn from Rav Chatzkel Levenstein, The Chazon Ish, and the Brisker Rav. Rav Brevda is also the mechaber of numerous sefarim, including Leil Shimurim on Pesach, Kiyemu Ve’kiblu on Purim, a three-volume set on Shir Hashirim based on the Gra, and Amalah shel Torah. He was buried in Har Ha’menuchot.
Rav Asher Zelig ben Yirmiyahu Rubenstein, Rosh Yeshivah of Yeshivat Torat Simchah in Yerushalayim (1942-2013). He learned at Ponovezh Yeshivah in Bnei Brak in the 1960s. He was a well-known talmid chacham, a powerful magid shiur and darshan, and was mashpiyah on many people. He was buried in Har Ha’menuchot.
Other events on this day:
- Jews of Sicily required to wear a special badge, 1369.
- Barcelona granted the right to exclude Jews for all time, 1424.
- A riot ensued in In Aix-en-Provence when a crowd felt that a Jew who insulted a holy saint received too light a sentence, 1436.
- Phillip II of Spain orders the establishment of the inquisition in the New World, 1569. The first Inquisition Tribunal opened in Mexico five years later.
- Rav Pinchas Horowitz, the Ba’al Hafla’ah, was appointed Rav of Frankfurt, 1772.
- Maryland put into effect the "Jew Bill", 1826, which allowed Jews to hold public office if they believed in Reward and Punishment in the Hereafter.
- Pravda article touched off a wave of virulent anti-Semitism throughout Russia, 1953.
- Submarine Dakar disappeared at sea, 1968.
Rav Shimshon Raphael ben Raphael Aryeh Hirsch, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (1808-1888). His father (1777-1857), who changed the family name to Hirsch, was the son of Rav Menachem Mendel Frankfurter of Altuna (1742-1823). Rav Menachem Mendel was a talmid of Rav Yonatan Eibeshitz and was the Rav of three communities of Altuna, Hamburg, and Wandsbec. At the age of 18, Rav Shimshon Raphael went to Mannheim to learn at the yeshivah of Rav Yaakov Ettlinger, author of Aruch La’ner. Rav Hirsch received smichah from Rav Ettlinger after learning there for a year. Thereafter, he attended the University of Bonn. That education would serve him well later in life as he combated the forces of Reform with eloquence. When he was 21, he was appointed Chief Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. There, he married Chana Judel. He also authored Igrot Ha’tzafon (The 19th Letters), under the pen name Ben Uziel. One year later, he published Chorev. In 1847, he became Chief Rabbi of Moravia, a region of 50,000 Jews in 52 communities, and which is now the Czech Republic. In 1851, he became the Rav of Frankfurt am Main, which he transformed into a Torah bastion. His best-known works are the classic six-volume Commentary on Chumash.
Rav Avraham Shlomo ben Eliyahu Eliyash, the Rebbe of Szamosujvar (1874-1930). The town of Szamosujvar was near Dej in Transylvania and modern-day Romania (at times it was part of Hungary). Rav Avraham Shlomoh was a talmid and gabai of the Arugot Habosim and a chasid of the Belzer Rebbe and he was very close friends with the Dejer Rav. He was appointed Dayan of Szamosujvar in 1895 and was one of the three member Bet Din that appointed Rav Yoel Teitelbaum as Rebbe in Satmar. He became Rebbe in 1920. He was a well-known expert in the halachot of choshen mishpat and wrote many sefarim, most of which were destroyed in the Holocaust.
Rav Shmuel Hillel ben Avraham Shenker (1956). His father was one of Rav Yisrael's Salanter’s greatest disciples. Reb Shmuel spent his early years in Slobodka, but he was orphaned of his father at an early age. He thus traveled to the Talmud Torah in Kelm and learned under the Alter, Reb Simcha Zissel. After a number of years, he traveled to Eretz Yisrael with his relative, Reb Tzvi Pesach Frank, who later became chief rabbi of Yerushalayim. In 1895, Reb Shmuel Hillel married the oldest daughter of Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld.
Rav Kalman Avraham Goldberg (1895-1968). A devoted disciple of the Alter of Novardok, he became Rav in Vasilkov. He moved to America in 1926. In 1928, he was hired to head the Bet Din for Adat Yisrael, under Rav Velvel Margulies. After Rav Velvel’s petirah, he became Rav.
Rav Menashe Yitzchak Meir ben Asher Yeshayah Eichenstein of Ziditchov, Petach Tikvah (1971). He was named Rebbe of Ziditchov after the petirah of his father. After World War II, he moved to Eretz Yisrael and settled in Petach Tikvah. He was buried in Har Ha’menuchot.
Rav Avraham Simcha Ha’Kohen Kaplan (1990). Chief Rabbi of Tzefat.
Rav Pinchas Hirschprung, Chief Rabbi of Montreal (1915-1998). At the age 15, he published a Torah journal, Ohel Torah, along with his friend, Rav Yeshayah Yosef Margolin, in Galicia. He then joined Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin, learning under Rav Meir Shapiro. At the outbreak of War World II, Rav Pinchas fled to Vilna, which was still neutral territory. In 1942, he acquired a visa to travel to Canada with a group of students from Mir and Lubavitch. When he arrived in Montreal, he was offered the position of Rav Kehillat Adat Yisrael. When Yeshivat Merkaz Ha’torah was established, Rav Pinchas was made its Rosh Yeshivah. Eventually, he was Rav Ha’Ir of Montreal.
Rebbetzin Sarah bat Chaim Leib Pam (1916-2011) Wife of Rav Avraham Yaakov Pam, Rosh Yeshivah of Yeshivat Torah Va’daat, she was known for her fierce devotion to her husband’s health and mission, and her own upbeat outlook on life.
Rav Avraham Chaim ben Binyomin Zev Spitzer, Rav of K’hal Ohr Hachaim in Boro Park (2013). Born in Besermien, Hungary, he came to the United States after the War. Rav Spitzer was extremely close to his rebbi, Rav Michael Ber Weismandl. Rav Spitzer learned in Bet Medrash Elyon in Monsey under Rav Reuven Grozovsky. He later served as a rebbi in Yeshivah of Brooklyn and in the Viener Yeshivah. He wrote a set of sefarim called Chayei Avraham.
Other events on this day:
- Rabi Shimon ben Shetach successfully completed the ejection of the Tzedukim (Sadducees), who had dominated the Sanhedrin, and replaced them with Perushim to serve as true dayanim, 81 BCE
- The first Jewish doctor in US, Jacob Lumbrozo, arrives in Maryland, 1656.
- A major earthquake hit Ancona, Italy, 1690. Bechasdei Hashem, there was little damage and no loss of life A local Purim was established by the local Jewish community.
- The Jews of Switzerland were granted equal rights after pressure was exerted by the U.S., 1866
Rav Avraham Antebi, Rav of Aram Tzova (Aleppo), Syria (1858), author of Yoshev Ohalim.
Rav Gedalyah Shmelkes of P’shemishel (1928)
Rav Eliyahu Meir Bloch (1894-1955). Born on Simchat Torah in the small Lithuanian city of Telshe to Rav Yosef Leib, Rav and Rosh Yeshivah of Telshe, having assumed the helm of the yeshivah from his father-in-law, Rav Eliezer Gordon, the founder of the yeshivah. After his marriage, he spent 12 years as a Rosh Yeshivah at Telshe. When it became clear that the yeshiva could not continue under the Soviets, the administration sent Reb Elya Meir and his brother-in-law, the late Rosh Yeshivah Reb Chaim Mordechai Katz on a mission to the United States, to raise funds to move the yeshivah to either America or Eretz Yisrael. When they arrived, they learned of the Nazi invasion. They decided to restart the yeshivah in Cleveland.
Rav Yerachmiel Eliyahu Botchko (1956), Rosh Yeshivat Montreaux, Switzerland.
Rav Yisachar Dov Ber ben Itamar Rosenbaum of Strozhnitz (1905-1981). Born in Tchernovitz, he moved to Strozhnitz in 1925, and served as Rebbe. After World War II, he moved to New York City. He was buried in Har Hazeitim.
Rav Shmuel Berenbaum, Rosh Yeshivah of Mir in Brooklyn (1921-2008). Born in the small Polish-Lithuanian town of Kinishen, Reb Shmuel began his formal learning at Yeshivat Ohel Torah of Baranovitch in 1935 under the leadership of Rav Elchanan Wasserman. During his years in the Mirrer Yeshivah, he became very close with the famed Mashgiach of the Mir, Rav Yechezkel Levenstein. Rav Shmuel escaped from Europe together with the Mirrer Yeshivah and spent six years in exile in Shanghai. He arrived in the United States with the yeshivah led by the mashgiach, Rav Chatzkel, in 1947, and continued to learn here. In the early 1950s, Rav Avraham Kalmanowitz zt”l, who had sustained and saved the yeshivah in Shanghai and rebuilt it in America , took Rav Shmuel as a son-in-law. After his marriage, Rav Shmuel joined the kollel of the Mirrer Yeshivah. In 1964, with the passing of Rav Kalmanowitz, Rav Shraga Moshe Kalmanowitz, oldest son of Rav Avraham, together with Rav Shmuel, became Roshei Yeshivah of the Mirrer Yeshivah.
Rebetzin Chanah Weinberg bat Yaakov Yitzchak, daughter of Rav Yaakov Yitzchok Ruderman, founder of Yeshiva of Ner Yisrael in Baltimore, and wife of Rav Shmuel Yaakov Weinberg, who succeeded his father-in-law as Rosh Yeshivah. She was a teacher par excellence, serving at a Talmud Torah in Lexington Park (2 hours outside of Baltimore). Later, as the director of activities in the former Jewish Convalescent Home, she excelled, as well. She founded the Bikur Cholim organization of Baltimore and devoted herself to it with body and soul. She was particularly concerned with victims of domestic violence, and was one of the pioneer advocates for the cause of victims of abuse. She was buried at Anshe Emunah Aitz Chaim Cemetery, in Arbutus, Maryland.
Other events on this day:
- Rav Shimon ben Shetach was able to rid the Sanhedrin of its Tzaduki members. The day was subsequently celebrated as a holiday.
- Jewish mourners were attacked at a funeral in Egypt, 1012.
- Jews of Switzerland were granted civic equality upon pressure exerted by the United States which had interceded on behalf of American Jewish citizens, 1866.
- "Kastner trial" opens in Yerushalayim District Court, 1954. (Malkiel Gruenwald was sued for libeling Dr. Rudolf Kastner regarding his alleged collaboration with Adolf Eichmann in Hungary, in 1944 but evidence proved Gruenwald right).
Rav Alexander Margules of Stanov (1802).
Rav Marcus Natan Adler, author of Nesina L'ger (1803-1890). He was Rav of Oldenburg, 1829-1830, and Hanover, 1830-1844, and Chief Rabbi of the British Empire, 1844-1890.
Rav Yehoshuah Yehudah Leib ben Benyamin Diskin (1818-1898), the Maharil Diskin, Rav of Brisk. He was born in Horodno. Reb Yehoshuah Leib was engaged before his bar mitzvah and at the age of fourteen he married the daughter of Rav Brode and lived with his father-in-law in Wolkowitz. He became Rav in various cities such as Lomza, Mezritch, Kovno, Shklov, and finally in Brisk. He moved to Eretz Yisrael after Yom Kippur in 1878. Rav Diskin's second wife, Sarah, was known as the "Brisker Rebetzin." She descended from the Nodah be’Yehudah and brought 40,000 rubles into their marriage, with which the couple established the Diskin Orphanage in Yerushalyim in 1880. She died in 1907. Rav Diskin also established the Ohel Moshe Yeshivah and held the line against attempts by maskilim to introduce secular institutions to Yerushalyim.
Rav Yerachmiel Yisrael Yitzchak ben Yechiel of Alexander, the Yismach Yisrael (1853-1910). At an early age, his father took him to Rav Menachem Mendel of Vorka, then Rav Beirush of Biala. After the latter’s passing, he became of a chasid of his father. After his father’s passing in 1894, he became the Alexander Rebbe.
Rav Eliyahu Moshe Peniel (1919), Chief Sefardic Rabbi of Yisrael.
Rav Aryeh Leib ben Avraham Moshe Malin (1906-1961). Born in Mileitzzitz, near Bialystok, he learned in Baranovitz, Kamenitz, Grodno, and Mir. Chidushei Reb Aryeh Leib was published after his petirah by his nephew Rav Berel Povarsky. Rav Leib was part of the galut of Mir to Shanghai. In 1947, he traveled to San Francisco, and from there to New York where he became part of Mir Yeshivah.
Rav Meir Chadash, Mashgiach of Yeshivat Chevron, Ateret Yisrael, and Ohr Elchanan (1898-1989). Born in Patrich, Lithuania, he was a talmid muvhak of the Alter of Slabodka, Rav Natan Tzvi Finkel. In the summer of 1925, he accompanied the Alter on the journey to Eretz Yisrael, to join the yeshivah which had been founded a year earlier in Chevron. After his marriage in 1928, Rev Meir was appointed as a Maggid Shiur in the yeshivah and served as one of the spiritual overseers, alongside Rav Yehudah Leib Chasman. After Rav Chasman's petirah, he was appointed mashgiach. He lived through the Arab massacre of Chevron's Jews on Shabat morning, 16 Av, 1929, as he and his young Rebetzin hid under the blood-stained bodies of two of the korbanot. Several years after the yeshivah moved to Yerushalayim, Rav Meir was offered a position as Rosh Yeshivah of a new yeshiva in Warsaw. Rebetzin Chadash was firmly opposed to this plan; the churban of Europe proved her advice correct.
Rav Asher Anshel ben Shmuel Dovid Krausz of Ratzfert (1926-1997). Born in Ratzfert, Hungary, he learned under the Levush Mordechai, Rav Mordechai Winkler. He and his brother were saved from death at the hands of the Nazis by the famous Kastnet train. After the War, Rav Asher served as Rav in Linz, Austria, helping the refugees there. He later moved to Argentina to serve at Kehal Anshei Ungarin in Buenos Aires. He eventually moved to Williamsburg. He authored Birur Halachah and Yalkut Haro’im. His brother, Rav Shalom Krausz (the Udvari Rav) was buried next to him in the New Jersey Bet Ha’Chaim in 2010.
Rav Daniel Levy (1935-2004). Born the youngest of nine children in Petersfield, England, he learned at Gateshead Yeshivah and Kollel before and for 12 years after his marriage. Following a trip to America, where he learned from Rav Moshe Feinstein and Rav Yaakov Kamenetsky, he was chosen as Rav of the K’hal Adat Yeshurun of Zurich.
Rav Chaim Shamshon Swiatycki (1914-2004), nephew of the Chazon Ish and scion of the Karelitz dynasty, whose patriarch and matriarch – Rav Shemaryahu Yosef and Rasha Leah, had 15 children. Her third child, Henya Chaya, married Rav Abba Swiatycki, who became Rav of Kosova, after the petirah of Rav Shemaryahu Yosef during WW I. Their only child was Rav Chaim. Rav Chaim’s mentor was his uncle, Rav Yitzchak Zundel Karelitz, brother of the Chazon Ish. At the age of 14, he left for Mir, then learned with Rav Baruch Ber Lebovitz in Kaminetz, where he stayed for six years. In 1934, he followed his uncle to Eretz Yisrael to escape conscription. He learned at Yeshivat Chevron in Yerushalayim and Yeshivat Volozhin in Tel Aviv. He then moved to America in 1938 where he joined the faculty at Metivta Tiferet Yerushalayim.
Rav Yitzchak Kaduri (1901-2006). Born to Rab Zeev Diva in Baghdad. Upon his second visit to Eretz Yisrael in 1923, he changed his last name from Diva to Kadouri and fixed his place of study at Yeshivat Porat Yosef in the Old City. He studied Kabalah under the tutelage of Rabbi Ephraim Cohen and Rabbi Salman Eliyahu (father of former Sefardic Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu). After marrying his first wife, Sarah, Rav Kadouri lived in Shechunat Ha’bucharim, one of Jerusalem's first neighborhoods built outside the Old City walls. He would stay at the yeshivah all week, coming home shortly before Shabat. Following the petirah of Rav Ephraim Ha’kohen, head of Jerusalem's mekubalim, toward the end of 1949, Rav Kadouri was selected to head the group. He found a new institution called Yeshivat Nachalat Yitzchak. Graced with a phenomenal memory, he was said to have known the entire Babylonian Talmud by heart. His closer students say that the blessing of the Ben Ish Chai and that of the Lubavitcher Rebbe - both of whom blessed him that he might live to see the Final Redeemer - came true. The students say that Rabbi Kaduri told them he met the Mashiach on Cheshvan 9, 5764 (Nov. 4, 2003). Rav Kaduri said that the Mashiach is not promoting himself, and that a study of Rabbi Kaduri's words in recent months would provide hints of his identity.
Other events on this day:
- The 400 Jews of Verona, Italy, completed their shul after moving into their ghetto and being given the keys to the ghetto gates, 1600.
- The Jews are readmitted to the city of Vermeiza (Worms) under orders of the Bishop of Speyer and with the backing of Frederick’s troops, 1616 (or 1613)
- Recife, Brazil conquered by Portugal, ending the legal existence of the prosperous Jewish community there, 1654. Forced to flee, the Jews left for the northern American hemisphere where they were the first Jews to settle New Amsterdam whose name was later changed to New York.
- The Rhode Island Assembly cancelled the “rights and property” of three members of the Hart family for supporting the British, 1780. Isaac Hart was put to death for the same offense.
- Purim Burgel was established in Tripoli, commemorating the downfall of the Burgel Pasha, 1793.
- Ezekiel Hart (1767–1843), first Jew to be elected to the Canadian Parliament, was denied his seat because he refused to take the Christian oath of office, 1808.
- Birth of Rav Elazar Menachem Mann Shach, 1898
- Hitler proclaims to German parliament his intention to murder all European Jews, 1939.
- The Iron Guard revolt in Romania led to the first massacre of Jews there in World War II, 1941.
- Beginning of First Gulf War, 1990. Israel went into a state of alert as war broke out. Over the next month and a half until Purim, 39 SCUDs fell on Israel causing major damage but with only one human casualty.